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False worlds: concept of internal entropy (1998) Volume(issue)1(1): 1-6.

A. Demirbaş1, A. Sıla2

1P. K. 216, 61035, Trabzon, Turkey 2P. K. 419, 42079, Konya, Turkey

The concept of internal entropy relates to inter-atomic or inter-molecular interactions at nonequilibrium of sub-atomic particles. The effect of electron accumulation screens by electron neutrinos (u e) scatter from electrons via charged- and neutral-current interactions and such as sterile electrons have no interaction with ordinary matter. This is a state of ground unification of the minimal symmetric or maximal disorder of sub-atomic particles.

Determination of combustion heat of fuels by using non-calorimetric experimental data (1998) Volume1(issue1) 1(1): 7-12.

A. Demirbaş, Department of Chemical Education, Karadeniz Technical University, 61335 Akçaabat, Söğütlü-Trabzon-Turkey.

Physical, chemical, and fuel properties of coal, biomass, and vegetable oils were investigated in the research. Combustion heats as higher heating values (HHV) of these samples obtained from different Turkish sources were determined experimentally and calculated from chemical analyses. Formulae were developed for calculation the HHVs of different fuels using non-calorimetric experimental data. The objective of this study was the experimental determination of the HHVs by using chemical analysis data can be easily obtained common laboratory equipments for students in different levels.

Non-aqueous medium titrations of some acidic compounds (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 13-16.

A. Demirbaş*, İ. Kula, Y. Erdoğan1, A. Aslan1, N. Yaylı2, and S. Karslıoğlu2

*Karadeniz Technical University, Department of chemical education 61335 Akçaabat, Trabzon, Turkiye; 1Department of Chemistry, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkiye; 2Department of Chemistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkiye

The present study deals with the potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations of four (2-, 6-, 7-, and 8-) methylnonanoic acids with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as solvent in non-aqueous media. The pKa values of the acids were determined by using of half neutralization potentials.

Energy concepts and energy education in chemistry (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 17-23.

A. Demirbaş, F. Dumanoğlu, and A. Ayas

Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Science Education, 61335 Akçaabat, Trabzon, Turkey.

While studying the concepts of energy in their lesson the chemistry teachers are not in agreement about the teaching methods. Because of this, the energy concepts understood differently among the students. And that the insufficiency of the presentation of energy concepts in the text books, together with mis-ordering of the concepts might be the cause of insufficient understanding of the energy concepts by the sample of the study. The rational use of energy is essential for the long-term sustainability of future generations.

Airborne elements from vehicles in transplanted lichens in Trabzon (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 25-30.

A. Demirbaş, M. Tüzen, K. Yazıcı, and S. Baydar

*Department of Chemistry Education, Karadeniz Technical University, 61335 Akçaabat, Trabzon, Turkey; 1Department of Chemistry, Gazi Osman Paşa University, Tokat, Turkey; 2Department of Biology Education, Karadeniz Technical University, 61335 Akçaabat, Trabzon, Turkey.

In this work, seven different lichen species were studied. The lichens used were transplanted either to the vicinity of streets of low volume and slow traffic or the vicinity of highways in the city of Trabzon. Nine elements were analyzed before and after transplantation. The highest Hg, Pb, and Cd concentrations were in Cladonia rangiformis the nearest a highway. The highest K and Ca concentrations found were 4705 mg/kg and 5214 mg/kg in Xanthoria calcicola and Cladonia rangiformis respectively. The highest Zn, Fe, and Cu concentrations found were 71 mg/kg in Physcia adcenders, 770 mg/kg in Cladonia pyxidata, and 17.0 mg/kg in Xanthoria calcicola respectively. The highest Hg, Pb, and Cd concentrations found were 0.72 mg/kg, 16.4 mg/kg, and 3.9 mg/kg in Cladonia rangiformis respectively.

Physical and technological properties of cement admixtures (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 31-36

A. Demirbaş, Y. Erdoğan, H. Genç, M. Tüfekçi, A. Aslan, A.Ayas, S.Karslıoğlu

In this study, physical and technological properties of cement admixtures such as borogypsum, phosphogypsum, wastes fro the boric acid production, lignite bottom and fly ashes, and steel furnace slags in concrete mixes were investigates. Physical test results obtained from these cement admixtures were studied with comparing to the control mix. Some physical test results of cement + lignite ash admixtures, compressive and bending strength test results of the cement mixes and hydration heats of cement + lignite bottom ash mixtures are given in this work.

Dehydration kinetics of colemanite using thermogravimetric data (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 37-44.

A. Demirbaş

Department of Science Education, Karadeniz Technical University, 61335 Akçaabat, Trabzon, Turkey

In this study colemanite mineral samples was analyzed DTA and TG methods. Thermochemical reaction results of this boron compound were studied. The dehydration kinetic parameters for colemanite were activation energy; 63597 J mole-1; the pre-exponential factor; 5.71x107 s-1 and rate constant 257 s-1, respectively, for +0.180 mm to -0.250 mm particle size at a constant heating rate of 10 K min-1. The order of dehydration reaction was accepted as first order.

Catalytic steam reforming of biomass and heavy oil residues to hydrogen (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 45-52.

A. Demirbaş and A. Çağlar

Department of Science Education, Karadeniz Technical University, 61335 Akçaabat, Trabzon, Turkiye

Hydrogen gas is produced on a pilot scale by steam gasification of charred lignocellulosic waste material. The gas is freed from moisture and carbon dioxide. The required energy for the carbonization process could be minimized via partial saving of energy from the gasification reactor. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming of the pyroligneous oils being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. Catalytic reforming of model compounds to hydrogen using Ni-based catalysts have achieved essentially complete conversion to H2.

Acetylation of some N,N'-linked biheteroaryls (1998) Volume(issue) 1(1): 53-56.

H. Yüksek and Ş. Bahçeci

Karedeniz Technical University, Department of Science Education, Sogutlu/Trabzon

Seven new1-acetyl-3-alkyl(aryl)-4-(2,5-dimethylpyrol-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol- 5-ones (4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, IR and UV spectra.

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